|Name||Sri Guru Amar Das Sahib Ji |
(3rd Sikh Guru)
|Born||5th May 1479, Basarke, Amritsar|
|Joti Jot||(Rejoining with God) 1st September 1574 (aged 95) Gobindval, India|
|Guruship||26th March 1552|
|Spouse(s)||Bibi Mansa Devi|
|Children||Bhai Mohan, Bhai Mohri, Bibi Dani, and Bibi Bhani|
|Predecessor||Sri Guru Angad Sahib Ji|
|Successor||Sri Guru Ram Das Sahib Ji|
|Gurbani||869 Hyms in 17 Ragas|
|Known for||Introducing the Anand Karaj, Writing the Anand Sahib|
Guru Amar Das (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਅਮਰ ਦਾਸ 5 May 1479 – 1 September 1574) was the third of the ten Sikh Guru’s and became Guru on Saturday, 16 April 1552 at the age of 73 following in the footsteps of Sri Guru Angad Sahib Ji, who became joti jot on 29 March 1552 aged 48. Guru Amar Das Ji was born in 1479, 10 years after Guru Nanak the First Sikh Guru and founder of the Sikh faith.
Guru Ji was the eldest son of Sri Tej Bhan Ji a farmer and trader and Mata Lachmi Ji, his devoted mother. He was a shopkeeper and lived in a village called Basarke which is near Amritsar.
Guru Amar Das was married to Mata Mansa Devi and they had four children – Two sons named Bhai Mohan and Bhai Mohri and two daughters named Bibi Dani Ji and younger daughter named Bibi Bhani Ji. Bibi Bhani later married Bhai Jetha who became the fourth Sikh Guru, Guru Ram Das.
The following is a summary of the main highlights of Guru Ji’s life:
• All visitors to Gurdwaras were to first take Langar (Free Blessed Food) together before seeing the Guru. “First Pangat then Sangat”
• Further abolished the Caste System.
• Guru lifted the status of women and gave them equality with men. He strictly prohibited the practice of Sati (the dying of the wife on her husband’s funeral pyre), “Parrda” (veil to cover the face), etc.
• Established an Administration system for management of the increasing size of the Sikh congregations, called Manjis
• Gift of the prayer called Anand Sahib, which is one of the Five Banis recited daily by devout Sikhs.
• Established the city of Goindval on the banks of river Bias in 1552 A.D.
• The Guru contributed a total of 907 hymns to the Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
Before Guru Ji died at the age of 95, he nominated Guru Ram Das (Bhai Jetha) as the fourth Guru of the Sikhs.
ਗੁਰੂ ਅਮਰ ਦਾਸ ਤਾਰਣ ਤਰਣ ਜਨਮ ਜਨਮ ਪਾ ਸਰਣਿ ਤਅ ॥੨॥੧੬॥
Guru Amar Das is our Saving Grace, who carries us across; in lifetime after lifetime, I seek the Sanctuary of Your Feet. ||2||16||
It is recorded that before becoming a Sikh, Bhai Amar Das Ji as he was known at the time, was a very religious vaishanavite hindu who spent most of his life performing all of the ritual pilgrimages and fasts of a devout hindu.
One day, Bhai Amar Das Sahib Ji heard some hymns of Sri Guru Nanak Sahib being sung by Bibi Amro Ji, the daughter of Sri Guru Angad Sahib Ji Maharaj, the second Sikh Guru Sahib. Bibi Amro Ji was married to Bhai Sahib’s nephew, Bhai Manak Chand Ji’ s son who was called Bhai Jasso Ji.
|Bhai Amar Das Ji fetching water for |
Sri Guru Angad Sahib Ji
Bibi Amro Ji lived together with Bhai Sahib’s brother. It so happened that Bhai Sahib was at his brother’s nearby house when he heard the wonderful recitation of Gurbani by his niece-in-law. Bhai Sahib was so impressed and moved by these Shabads that he immediately decided to go to see Sri Guru Angad Sahib Ji at Khadoor Sahib. It is recorded that this event took place when Bhai Sahib was 61 years old.
Bhai Sahib also had a younger brother called Bhai Ishar Das whose son Bhai Gurdas Ji, was a superb poet and scholar of comparative religions who would later become the scribe that was chosen by Guru Angad Sahib to pen the first edition of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji Maharaj.
In 1635, upon meeting Guru Angad Sahib Ji, Bhai Sahib was so touched by the Guru’s message that he became a devout Sikh. Soon he became involved in Sewa (Service) to the Guru and the Community. Under the impact of the Sri Guru Angad Sahib Ji and the teachings of the Gurus, Bhai Amar Das Ji became a devout Sikh. He adopted Guru Ji as his spiritual guide (Guru).
Bhai Sahib Ji began to live at Khadoor Sahib. He used to rise early in the morning, bring water from the Beas River for Guru Ji’s bath, he would wash the Guru Ji’s clothes and fetch wood from the Jungle for ‘Guru ka Langar’. He was so dedicated to Sewa and the Guru and had completely extinguished pride and was totally lost in this commitment that he was considered an old man who had no interest in life, he was dubbed Amru, and generally forsaken.
However, as a result of Bhai Sahib’s commitment to Sikhi principles, dedicated service and devotion to the Sikh cause, Sri Guru Angad Sahib Ji appointed Sri Guru Amar Das Sahib Ji as third Sri Guru Nanak Sahib in March 1552 at the age of 73. He established his headquarters at the newly built town of Goindwal Sahib, which Sri Guru Angad Sahib Ji had established.
|Bhai Amar Das becomes the third Sikh Guru|
Soon large numbers of Sikhs started flocking to Goindwal to see the new Guru. Meanwhile, going against his father’s wishes, Datu one of Guru Angad’s sons proclaimed himself as Guru at Khadoor following his father’s rejoining with God. He was so jealous of Guru Amar Das that he, with a small group of his supporters, proceeded to Goindwal to confront the Guru. Upon seeing Guru Amar Das seated on a throne surrounded by his followers he said, “You were a mere menial servant of the house until yesterday; how dare you style yourself as the Guru?”.
At that point, Datu kicked the aged Guru Amar Das Ji so hard that he fell to the floor. Taking the seat of the Guru he then proclaimed himself Guru to the assembly of Sikhs. The Sangat must have been shocked as this not only flew against Guru Angad’s wishes, but against centuries of respect that the people of India and the Punjab had for their elders, to kick the revered Guru was indeed shocking.
Guru Amar Das, however, in utter humility, righted himself and caressed Datu’s foot saying, “I am old and my bones have grown very hard, I fear they have hurt your tender foot. “After this Guru Amar Das left Goindwal that evening and returned to his native village of Basarke Gillan.
At Basarke Gillan, Guru Amar Das shut himself in a small house for solitary meditation. He had told no one where he was headed, but just in case someone tracked him down he attached a notice on the front door saying, “He who opens this door is no Sikh of mine, nor am I his Guru.” A delegation of faithful Sikhs led by Baba Buddha found the house and seeing the notice on the front door, finally chose to ‘go between the Guru’s words’, cutting a hole through a wall to reach their beloved Guru. Then Baba Buddha said to the Guru, “Guru Sahib, being supreme, we know you care for nothing in the world – neither fame, nor riches nor a following, but we cannot live without your guidance. Guru Angad has tied us to your apron, where should we go now if you do not show us the way?”
At the tearful emtreaty of the Sikhs, Guru Amar Das, overwhelmed by their devotion, returned to Goindwal where Datu, who had been unable to gather any followers of his own, had returned to Khadoor.